Knowledge
P. 238
Disaster Facts
Support Systems
P. 253
and Information
Information
You Should Know
P. 262
Learning as much as you can about
disasters will help you make quick and
accurate decisions when one strikes.
This knowledge will not only be helpful
to you, but could lead to helping many
others too. In this chapter, we have
compiled a range of information on
different types of disasters and disaster
preparedness. Enhance your level of
disaster preparedness by learning more!
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237
Knowledge of Earthquakes
Seismic Intensity and Magnitude
Seismic intensity describes the degree of shaking. Seismic intensities announced by
the Japan Meteorological Agency are ranked into 10 levels from “0” to “7” (see the
table below). Magnitude (M) is the energy of the earthquake. Even an earthquake with
a small magnitude could have a large seismic intensity in areas near the source.
North American Plate
1
2
1
Seismic
Situation
Eurasian Plate
3
intensity
2
0
Imperceptible to people
3
6
4
1
Felt slightly by some people keeping quiet in buildings.
5
2
Felt by most people keeping quiet in buildings.
Philippine Sea Plate
3
Felt by almost all people inside buildings.
4
Almost all people are startled. Hanging objects such as lights sway significantly.
Unstable objects/figurines may fall.
Mechanism of Earthquake
Earthquakes occur when slabs of rock underground slip away or toward each other.
5 Lower
Most people feel the need to hold onto something stable. Things such as dishes or
books on shelves may fall. Unsecured furniture may move and unstable objects
Around Japan, oceanic plates move at a speed of several centimeters a year toward
may topple over.
the land plates, and when the land plates can no longer resist this stress and slip, an
earthquake occurs at the plate boundary (interplate earthquake). The complex forces of
5 Upper
Walking is difficult without holding onto something stable. More things such
multiple plates around Japan make it one of the world’s most seismically active areas.
as dishes or books on shelves fall. Unreinforced concrete block walls, etc., may
collapse.
An earthquake that occurs inside the tectonic plate is called an intraplate earthquake.
6 Lower
It is difficult to remain standing. Most unsecured furniture move and some may
5
Intraplate earthquakes include earthquakes occurring within the subducting plate
topple over. Wall tiles and windows may sustain damage and fall. For wooden
and earthquakes occurring in the shallow area of a land plate (shallow focus inland
houses with low earthquake resistance, roof tiles may fall, and the houses may tilt
earthquake: active fault earthquake). As a shallow focus inland earthquake would
or collapse.
occur near residential areas, it could cause large damage. A large earthquake directly
6 Upper
People need to crawl to move, and may be thrown through the air. Almost all
hitting Tokyo, the Tokai earthquake, and other major earthquakes are forecasted to
unsecured furniture move and more start toppling over. Large cracks may form in
occur.
the ground, and large-scale landslips and massif collapse may occur.
There are even more cases of wooden houses with low earthquake resistance
Active Fault
7
tilting or collapsing. Even buildings with high earthquake resistance could tilt.
More reinforced concrete buildings with low seismic resistance collapse.
These were active in the most recent period of geological time (from the Quaternary
Period: within the last 1.7 to 2 million years), and are faults that can become the
source of future earthquakes.
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Liquefaction
Long-period ground motion observation information
Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soil behaves like a liquid due to the occurrence
The Japan Meteorological Agency is announcing long-period ground motion
of an earthquake. It could cause damage such as the tilting or sinking of houses and
observation information on its website on a trial basis (as of April 2015).
other buildings. It could also result in the uplifting of manholes and structures with
law specific gravity such as sewage pipes.
Long-period ground motion levels
Long-period Ground Motions
Long-period ground motion is ranked according to situations inside tall buildings, such
as human perception and reaction, and the movement or toppling over of furniture.
When an earthquake occurs, various periods of shaking (ground motion) occur. Here,
For instance in long-term ground motion grade 1, window blinds swing significantly
“period” means the time it takes for the ground to move back and forth to complete
and almost everyone can feel the shaking. At grade 4, most of the furniture that is not
one cycle. When a large-scale earthquake occurs, a long-period, slow and large
secured to the floor or wall moves and people find it difficult to remain standing.
shaking (ground motion) occurs. This kind of ground motion is called “long-period
ground motion.”
Long-period
ground motion
Human perception and reaction
Situation
Swaying characteristics of tall
Slow swaying
level
buildings
throughout the building
Grade 1
Almost everyone can feel the
Blinds and other hanging objects
The higher the floor,
Buildings have what is called a natural
shaking. Some are startled.
swing significantly.
the more powerful
period—the rate at which they sway
the shaking
People feel large shaking and want
back and forth. When this natural period
to hold onto something stable. They
Furniture and fixtures on casters
and the seismic wave period match up,
Grade 2
have problems moving, such as
move slightly. Dishes and books on
the subsequent resonance will make the
having difficulty walking without
shelves may fall.
holding onto something.
building shake significantly. In general,
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tall buildings have a longer natural
Furniture and fixtures on casters
period than low buildings. Due to this
Medium and tall
Supertall
It becomes difficult to remain
move significantly. Unsecured
Grade 3
standing.
furniture may move, and unstable
fact, tall buildings tend to resonate
items may topple over.
with the seismic waves of long-period
ground motion, and once this resonance
Furniture and fixtures on casters
People cannot remain standing,
move significantly, and some may
occurs, a building will sway largely for
Grade 4
have to crawl to move, and are
topple over. Most of the unsecured
a long period. The higher floors of a tall
tossed about by the shaking.
furniture will move and some will
building also tend to sway more than the
topple over.
lower floors.
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Tsunami Knowledge
Earthquake Early Warnings
Earthquake Early Warning is information on the estimated seismic intensity and arrival
time of strong tremors, which is provided as soon as possible after the occurrence of an
1. The ocean floor and ocean surface rise or
earthquake. When an Earthquake Early Warning is issued by the Japan Meteorological
sink due to an earthquake.
Agency, people are informed through television, radio, the Internet, and others.
2. The fluctuation of the ocean surface
becomes a large wave that spreads in all
directions and strikes the coastal areas.
Types of Earthquake Early Warnings
There are two main types of Earthquake Early Warnings: forecasts and alerts.
An Earthquake Early Warning forecast is issued when an earthquake with
Earthquake
a maximum seismic intensity of at least 3 or a magnitude of at least 3.5 is
expected to occur. An Earthquake Early Warning alert is issued for areas that
will have tremors with a seismic intensity of at least 4 when an earthquake
with a maximum seismic intensity of at least 5 Lower is expected to occur.
When the maximum seismic intensity is expected to be at least 6 Lower, the
Early Warning alert is positioned as an emergency alert.
Type
Name of Earthquake Warning
Contents
Issued
Ground motion
Maximum seismic intensity 3 or
forecast
Earthquake Early Warning
higher or magnitude 3.5 or higher
forecast
Ground motion alert
Maximum seismic intensity 5
Earthquake Early Warning or
Lower or higher
Ground motion
Earthquake Early Warning alert
Maximum seismic intensity 6
emergency alert
5
Lower or higher
Mechanism of a Tsunami
Mechanism of Earthquake Early Warning System
When an earthquake occurs at a shallow place below the surface of the ocean floor,
When an earthquake occurs, the P waves that cause small shaking are followed by the
fault movements make the ocean floor rise or sink. This results in a fluctuation of
S waves that cause large shaking. After detecting the first P wave by the seismometers,
the ocean surface, which becomes a large wave that spreads in all direction. This is
the Earthquake Early Warning is issued to warn people of the approaching S wave.
a tsunami. The deeper the water depth, the faster the tsunami travels, and the more
However, in areas close to the focus, the Earthquake Early Warning may not be issued
shallow the water, the higher the tsunami becomes. In any case, the tsunami flows
in time.
powerfully inland at a speed that most people will not be able to outrun. It also recedes
very strongly, taking everything that floats out to sea. Tsunamis will hit repetitively as
well.
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Typhoon and Heavy Rain
Knowledge
Typhoon Structure
Air descends, with no clouds, and weakening wind and rain. The
Eye of the typhoon
eye has a diameter ranging from around 20 to 200 km. In general,
the smaller the eye of the typhoon, the more powerful the typhoon.
The eye of the typhoon is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of
Eyewall
dense cumulonimbus clouds. This is where the strongest wind and
rain of the storm occurs.
Spiral band
A somewhat thick spiral band (inner rainband) around the eyewall,
which produce strong and continuous rainfall.
Outer rainbands around the spiral band, forming about 200 to 600
km from the center of the typhoon, which intermittently produce
Outer band
strong rain showers, thunderstorms, and at times, tornadoes.
Above the clouds
Air is released clockwise.
Cross section diagram
Hurricane
of a typhoon
Typhoon
Eye of
Cyclone
180° E
the Typhoon
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Descending
* Large tropical cyclones are called different names depending on where they occur.
air
Typhoons and Tropical Cyclones
Eyewall
Low-pressure systems forming over tropical waters are called tropical cyclones. Of
these tropical cyclones, those in the northwestern Pacific or the South China Sea
that have a maximum wind speed (10-minute average) of at least 17m/s are called
Outer band
typhoons. Upper level winds push the typhoon, which is disposed to moving north
due to the effect of earth’s rotation. Because of this, in low latitudes where east winds
normally blow, the typhoon moves north while being steered to the west. When the
typhoon reaches the middle and high latitudes where strong west winds (prevailing
Ascending air
westerlies) are blowing in the upper level, typhoons move northeast at a high speed.
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Advisories and Warnings for Typhoons and Heavy Rain
Typhoon and heavy rain emergency warnings
Issued when there is the risk that heavy rain will cause flooding or
Issued when heavy rainfall of an intensity observed only once every
Heavy rain
few decades is forecasted due to typhoons or torrential rain, or when a
sediment disasters. The advisory continues to be issued even after the rain
advisory
powerful typhoon with a level of intensity observed only once every few
has stopped if there is still the risk of sediment disasters, etc.
Heavy rain
decades or an extratropical cyclone of comparable intensity is forecasted
emergency
to bring heavy rain. When a heavy rain emergency warning is issued, it
Issued when there is the risk that heavy rain will cause serious flooding or
warning
is expected that there is an extremely large risk of serious damage such
Heavy rain
as inundation and sediment disaster occurring. The emergency warning
sediment disasters. The warning continues to be issued even after the rain
continues to be issued even after the rain has stopped when there is still
warning
has stopped if there is still the risk of serious sediment disasters, etc
a significantly large risk of serious sediment disaster, etc. occurring.
Storm
Issued when it is forecasted that a powerful typhoon with a level of
Gale advisory
Issued when there is the risk of disasters occurring from strong winds.
emergency
intensity observed only once every few decades or an extratropical
warning
cyclone of comparable intensity will produce violent winds.
Storm
Issued when there is the risk of serious disasters occurring from violent
warning
winds.
Issued when it is forecasted that a powerful typhoon with a level of
High wave
intensity observed only once every few decades or an extratropical
emergency
cyclone of comparable intensity will produce high waves. High waves
Issued when there is the risk of rising levels or flooding of rivers, damage
advisory
are completely different from tsunamis occurring from earthquakes.
Flood dvisory
or collapse of levees, and other disasters occurring due to heavy rain, long
Storm surge
Issued when it is forecasted that a powerful typhoon with a level of
rain, snowmelt, etc.
emergency
intensity observed only once every few decades or an extratropical
warning
cyclone of comparable intensity will result in storm surge.
Flood
Issued when there is the risk of serious disasters occurring due to heavy
warning
rain, long rain, snowmelt, etc.
Other typhoon and heavy rain bulletins and forecasts
Issued when there is the risk of disasters occurring due to high waves.
High wave
High waves are completely different from tsunamis occurring from
advisory
earthquakes.
Record-time
During a heavy rain warning, this bulletin is announced on the
heavy rain
observation or analysis of severe record-time heavy rain of a scale that
Issued when there is the risk of serious disasters occurring due to high
information
only occurs once every several years to let everyone know that the
High wave
current rainfall is of a severity rarely seen in that area.
waves. High waves are completely different from tsunamis occurring from
warning
earthquakes.
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The Japan Meteorological Agency and the national government or
Designated river
prefectural governments jointly make flood forecasts that indicate the
Storm surge
Issued when there is the risk of disasters occurring through the abnormal
flood forecast
water level and flow rate of designated rivers. There are four types of
advisory
rise of the ocean surface due to typhoons, low pressure systems, etc.
designated river flood forecasts: Flood advisory bulletin, flood warning
bulletin, flood risk bulletin, and flood bulletin.
Storm surge
Issued when there is the risk of serious disasters occurring through the
warning
abnormal rise of the ocean surface due to typhoons, low pressure systems, etc.
During a heavy rain warning, if a very high risk of sediment disaster
Sediment-
arises, the municipalities at risk are identified, and this bulletin is issued
disaster alert
jointly by the relevant prefecture and the Japan Meteorological Agency.
bulletin
Locations at risk of sediment disasters, warning and evacuation
Thunderstorm
Issued when there is the risk of disasters occurring through lightening.
districts, and emergency warning districts can be confirmed on the
warning
Alerts may also be added for hail or sudden gusts of wind that often form
Tokyo Metropolitan Government’s Sediment Disaster Risk Map
under thunderclouds. Thunderstorm advisories will also call for caution
against sudden heavy rain.
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Various Weather Information
Heavy snow advisory, warning, emergency warning
Avalanche, etc. advisories
Heavy snow
Issued when there is the risk of disasters occurring due to heavy snow.
Avalanche
Issued when there is the risk of disasters occurring from avalanches.
advisory
advisory
Heavy snow
Issued when there is the risk of serious disasters occurring due to
Issued when there is the risk of serious disasters occurring due to
Snowmelt
warning
heavy snow.
advisory
heavy snow.
Heavy snow
Issued when heavy snow with a level of intensity observed only once
Snow accretion
Issued when heavy snow with a level of intensity observed only once
emergency
every few decades is forecasted.
advisory
every few decades is forecasted.
warning
Snowstorm advisory, warning, emergency warning
Cold weather advisories
Issued when there is the risk of damage from gales accompanying
Ice accretion
Issued when there is the risk of damage to communications lines, power lines,
snow. In addition to disasters from strong winds, alerts are also
Gale and snow
advisory
ship hulls, etc., due to significant ice accretion.
given for disasters resulting from visibility obstruction (reduction of
advisory
visibility), etc., accompanying snow.
Frost advisory
Issued when there is the risk of damage to crops due to early and late frost.
Issued when there is the risk of serious disasters occurring from
Low temperature
Issued when there is the risk of significant damage to crops, etc., due to low
Snowstorm
gales accompanying snow. In addition to serious disasters occurring
advisory
temperatures, or the risk of significant damage brought about by the freezing
warning
from violent winds, warnings are also given about the risk of serious
or rupture of water supply pipes in the winter.
disasters resulting from visibility obstruction (reduction of visibility),
etc., accompanying snow.
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Issued when it is forecasted that a powerful typhoon with a level of
Other Advisories
intensity observed only once every few decades or a extratropical
cyclone of comparable intensity will produce violent winds
Snowstorm
accompanying snow. In addition to serious disasters occurring from
Dense fog
Issued when there is the risk of disasters occurring due to
emergency
violent winds, warnings are also given about the extremely high risk
advisory
thick fog. Disasters include significant impairments that
warning
of serious disasters resulting from visibility obstruction (reduction of
hinder the operation of transit systems.
visibility), etc., accompanying snow.
Issued where there is the risk of disasters occurring due to
Dry air advisory
dry air, and when weather conditions that have a high risk of
fire outbreak are forecasted.
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Large-Scale Disasters in the
Past
Earthquakes since the Great Kanto Earthquake that wrought
enormous damage
Major volcanic eruptions that had an impact on Tokyo
Year
Scale
Disaster name
Damage
Year
Name
Damage, etc.
1923
M7.9
Great Kanto EarthquakeKita
Deaths/missing:
Over 105,000
1707
Hoei-Eruption of Mount Fuji
Large quantities of volcanic ash
1927
M7.3
TKita Tango Earthquake
Deaths: 2,925
1902
Izu-Torishima Eruption
Deaths: 125
1943
M7.2
Tottori Earthquake
Deaths: 1,083
1940
Miyakejima Eruption
Deaths: 11
1944
M7.9
Tonankai Earthquake
Deaths/missing: 1,223
1945
M6.8
Mikawa Earthquake
Deaths: 2,306
1983
Miyakejima Eruption
Damage from lava flow, etc.
1946
M8.0
Nankai Earthquake
Deaths: 1,330
1986
Izu-Oshima Eruption
All residents evacuated from the island
1948
M7.1
Fukui Earthquake
Deaths: 3,769
1995
M7.3
Great Hanshin-Awaji
Deaths: 6,434
2000
Miyakejima Eruption
All residents evacuated from the island
Earthquake
* Volcanic eruptions that left behind damage in Tokyo
2011
M9.0
Great East Japan
Deaths: 19,225
Earthquake
(as of March 2015)
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1923 Great Kanto Earthquake (from the archives
2011 Great East Japan Earthquake
1986 Izu-Oshima eruption
2000 Miyakejima Eruption
of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Memorial
©T. Miyazaki
Hall of Reconstruction Hall of Reconstruction)
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Support for Rebuilding of Life
after a Disaster
Recent typhoons and heavy rain that had an impact on Tokyo
Support for rebuilding life
There are various systems in place to help you rebuild your life when you have
September 4-5, 2005
Heavy rain
Inundation above floor level: 2,349
Inundation below floor level: 2,129
incurred damage from a natural disaster such as an earthquake. Some of the systems
Injured: 2
may require that you present a damage certificate (risai shomeisho), which certifies the
Typhoon No. 9
Houses totally destroyed: 2
September 5-7, 2007
Houses destroyed to some degree: 189
degree of damage to your home or office, etc., caused by the earthquake, etc. File for
Injured: 5
this certificate at your municipality. Following this, you can apply for various systems
Heavy rain
Inundation above floor level: 7
August 9, 2009
Inundation below floor level: 5
that can help you rebuild your life. In addition, if you were insured for earthquakes,
Missing: 1
etc., you can receive insurance money.
Inundation above floor level: 336
July 5, 2010
Heavy rain
Inundation below floor level: 372
Landslip: 1
Deaths: 1
December 2-3, 2010
Heavy rain, gales
Injured: 5
Death of a parent or child, etc.
Disaster sympathy money
Houses destroyed to some degree: 1
Injured: 6
Disability from injury or disease
Disaster disability compensation money
September 21, 2011
Typhoon No. 15
Houses destroyed to some degree:1
Inundation below floor level: 3
Need money for the time being
Support fund for disaster victims to rebuild
Injured: 3
to live and to rebuild life
their lives
Houses destroyed to some degree: 4
September 15-16, 2013
Typhoon No. 18
Inundation below floor level: 1
Disaster relief fund
Deaths: 36
Missing: 4
Wish to get a tax exemption or
Income tax casualty loss deduction
October 16, 2013
Typhoon No. 26
Houses totally destroyed: 46;
reduction
Income tax disaster exemption
Houses partially destroyed: 40
Wish to rebuild my house
Disaster reconstruction housing loan
* Typhoons and heavy rain that wrought human damage in Tokyo and damage to over 2,000 houses.
Public vocational training
Wish to resume work
Job seeker support training
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Vocational training allowance
Emergency scholarship by the Japan Student
Wish to resume school
Services Organization
National government education loan’s special
measure for disasters
Disaster reconstruction loan
Wish to rebuild my business
Loan systems for SMEs and agricultural,
forestry, and fisheries businesses
2013 Typhoon No. 26 sediment disaster in Izu Oshima island
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Damage certificate
Disaster disability compensation money
A damage certificate is issued by the head of the municipality to certify the degree of
Those who became severely disabled due to the disaster can receive disaster disability
damage to a person’s residence due to disasters such as earthquakes, wind and floods. It
compensation money. For details, inquire at your local municipality.
will be necessary to use this certificate to receive benefits, loans, disaster relief money,
extension and/or reduction/exemption of payment of taxes, national health insurance,
etc., reduction/exemption of fees for public services, to file for insurance benefits, and
When the household’s main provider became severely disabled:
apply for residence in emergency temporary housing.
Amount of
Amount determined by municipality ordinance (2.5 million yen)
When other members of the family became severely disabled
compensation
Amount determined by municipality ordinance (1.25 million yen)
Criteria for the Damage Certificate
Degree
Percentage
Those who are blind in both eyes.
of damage
destroyed
The damage certificate is widely used
Those who have lost the functions of mastication and speech.
Total
as material to determine eligibility for
50% or more
Those who are left with serious impairment in the functions of the nervous
destruction
system or in the psyche and require continuous nursing care.
various disaster victim support measures.
Significant
Those who are left with serious impairment in the functions of the thorax
partial
40% to under 50%
It is classified according to the degree of
and abdominal organs and require continuous nursing care.
Recipient
destruction
Those who have lost both upper limbs above the elbow joint.
damage to the dwelling (owned housing,
Partial
Those who have completely lost the functions of both upper limbs.
rented housing) as shown in the table. For
20% to under 40%
destruction
Those who have lost both lower limbs above the knee joint.
details, inquire at your local municipality
Those who have completely lost the functions of both lower limbs.
office.
For those with multiple physical or mental impairments,
Disaster Sympathy Money
Support fund for disaster victims to rebuild their lives
The families of those who lost their lives or are missing due to the disaster can receive
sympathy money. For details, inquire at your local municipality.
A support fund will be provided to households that suffered significant damage to
their livelihoods through the disaster, such as total destruction of their residences. For
5
details, inquire at your municipality
Death of the household’s main provider:
Amount
Amount determined by municipality ordinance (5 million yen)
Total destruction, etc.:
1 million yen
Death of another family member:
Payment
Significant partial destruction:
500,000 yen
Amount determined by municipality ordinance (2.5 million yen)
Support provided according to how
Construction or purchase: 2 million yen
the dwelling will be reconstructed
Repair: 1 million yen
Family of the deceased
(additional fund)
Rental (excluding public housing): 500,000 yen
(1. Spouse
2. Child
3. Parent 4. Grandchild
5. Grandparent)
Recipient
*If a dwelling is built or purchased (or repaired) after renting a dwelling, the combined total
When there are none of the above family members, a sibling of the
amount of support will be 2 million (or 1 million) yen.
deceased (Lived with the deceased at the time of death, or lived under the
*For single households, the payment will be 3/4 of the amount indicated above.
same household budget)
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Disaster Relief Fund
Income tax casualty loss deduction
Those who have suffered injury or damage to their residence or property are eligible to
When a disaster results in damages to your property such as housing, household
borrow funds for disaster relief. However, income limits apply. For details, inquire at
possessions, and clothing, which are needed for daily life, you can deduct a certain
your local municipality.
amount from income when filing your tax returns. The amount deductible can be
chosen from either (1) casualty loss deduction based on the Income Tax Act, or (2)
income tax exemption/reduction measures based on the Disaster Exemption Act,
This injury alone 1.5 million yen
whichever is better. For details, inquire at your local tax office.
Damage to at least 1/3 of household possessions 2.5 million yen
Head of household has injuries
Income tax disaster exemption
lasting at least 1 month.
Partial destruction of dwelling
2.7 million yen
When your income in the year of the disaster does not exceed 10 million yen, and
Total destruction of dwelling 3.5 million yen
damages to your home or household possessions were 50% or more of the current
value, you can receive income tax exemption/reduction. However, this only applies to
Damage to at least 1/3 of household possessions 1.5 million yen
those who are not filing for income tax casualty loss deductions. For details, inquire at
your local tax office.
Partial destruction of dwelling 1.7 million yen
Head of household does not have
injuries lasting at least 1 month
Total destruction of dwelling (excluding dwellings that
Other reduction/exemption from taxes, etc.
were completely lost or swept away) 2.5 million yen
You may be eligible for tax or insurance reduction/exemption or deductions according
to the scale of the disaster and the degree of damage. Inquire at the relevant divisions
Dwelling was completely lost or swept away
3.5 million yen
noted below.
Tax Office
Inheritance tax, gift tax,
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Loan interest rate
Annual rate of 3% (no interest during the period of deferment)
Nearby municipal office
Inhabitant tax, fixed asset tax (for those residing in the
Period of deferment
Within 3 years (5 years in special cases)
23 wards, inquire at the metropolitan tax office), etc.
Period of repayment
Within 10 years (includes the period of deferment)
National health insurance / long-term care insurance
Metropolitan Tax Office
Business tax on individuals
Japan Pension Service
National pension
Relevant utility service or
Electricity, gas, water supply and sewerage, telephone
office
bills, NHK receiving fee, etc.
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Disaster reconstruction housing loan
Emergency temporary housing
Those who own or reside in dwellings that were damaged by the disaster can receive
Emergency temporary housing is for people who have lost a place to live because
a disaster reconstruction housing loan to rebuild their homes. Residences eligible
their home was total destroyed (collapsing, burning, swept away) in a disaster, and
for this loan are, in principle, those with a floor space from 13sqm to 175sqm. These
who do not have the financial means to secure housing on their own. If enough
residences must also meet the criteria set by the Japan Housing Finance Agency. For
emergency temporary housing cannot be built in time, it would also be possible to live
details, inquire at the Japan Housing Finance Agency, which is providing the loan..
in rented private housing deemed to be temporary housing. According to the situation,
the Tokyo Metropolitan Government plans to promptly and appropriately provide
disaster survivors with emergency temporary housing by using public housing such as
metropolitan housing, renting private housing, and constructing temporary housing.
Implementing
Japan Housing Finance Agency
organization
Earthquake insurance
Eligible
People who have received a Damage Certificate for partial destruction or more,
borrowers
and own, rent, or live in a dwelling with floor space from 13sqm to 175 sqm.
In Japan, you never know when you might suffer damages to your home and
household possessions due to an earthquake, tsunami, or other catastrophe.
Use of funds
Construction, purchase, or repair of own home
These damages can be covered by earthquake insurance or mutual aid (this is
Construction funds: Basic loan 16.5 million yen / special addition 5.1 million yen
different from fire insurance). Earthquake insurance is insurance dedicated to
Loan limit
Land acquisition funds: 9.7 million yen
earthquake disasters, which provides compensation for damages to property by
Ground leveling funds: 4.4 million yen
fire, destruction, immersion or being swept away, caused by an earthquake or
volcanic eruption or a subsequent tsunami. Damages from liquefaction caused
Interest rate
Basic loan: 0.91% / special addition: 1.81%
by earthquakes are also covered.
Loan period
Within 35 years
(as of February 2014)
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Receiving earthquake insurance
Insurance will be paid according to the degree of damage to the building or
household possessions. Even if you do not have the insurance papers with you
due to fire or tsunami, as long as you can prove who you are, you can take the
procedures to receive insurance.
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Support for Daily Life
Resuming work
Disaster Reconstruction Loan
Those who have lost work can look for a job at Hello Work (national government’s
This is a disaster reconstruction loan to support small and medium-sized companies
employment service center) or receive support such as vocational training.
that were affected by the disaster in rebuilding their business. The repayment period
is longer than regular loans, and it also has benefits such as a long grace period. For
details, inquire at the Japan Finance Corporation.
Eligibility
Those receiving unemployment benefits
Public vocational
Can receive training for free to acquire skills and
training
Contents
Eligibility
Small and medium-sized business operators who suffered
knowledge necessary for employment
damages due to a designated disaster
(trainee must bear the text fees, etc.)
Equipment funds or long-term operating funds to rebuild the
Use of funds
Those who cannot receive unemployment benefits
business after the disaster
Eligibility
because they were self-employed, were not participating
Direct loan: 150 million yen
Maximum loan
Loan by agent: additional 75 million yen within the limits of
Job seeker support
in the employment insurance program, etc.
the direct loan
training
Can receive training for free to acquire skills and
Standard interest rate
1.4 - 2.0% (as of April 2015)
Contents
knowledge necessary for employment (trainee must
Equipment funds: within 10 years
bear the text fees, etc.)
Repayment period
(of which there is a period of deferment of up to 2 years)
Vocational
Operating funds: within 10 years
Those who cannot receive unemployment benefits
training
Eligibility
(of which there is a period of deferment of up to 2 years)
and who are instructed by Hello Work to receive
allowance
Whether there is the need to provide security and the type of
training, and fulfill certain conditions.
Security/guarantor
security, etc. is decided after discussion
Returning to school
Loan systems for SMEs and agricultural, forestry, and fisheries
Those with drastic changes in household finances or whose school has been damaged
businesses
due to the disaster can receive emergency scholarships to help cover matters such as
5
The Shoko Chukin Bank provides loans for equipment funds or operating funds to
school tuition and fees for transferring schools.
small and medium-size companies that have suffered damages, and Credit Guarantee
Corporations serve as guarantors for loans from financial institutions. The Japan
Emergency
Households residing in areas falling under
Finance Corporation also loans operating funds and management funds to agricultural,
scholarship by
Eligibility
the Disaster Relief Act, which have had
forestry, and fisheries operators who suffered damages. Business funds are also loaned
the Japan Student
a drastic change in the financial situation
at low interest rates to agricultural cooperatives and other cooperatives.
Services Organization
within the past 12 months
Inquiries
Current school
Special measure for disasters may apply to
those who have a damage certificate, etc.
Shoko Chukin Bank’s disaster reconstruction funds for SMEs
Eligibility
Credit guarantee corporations around Japan provide credit guarantee
Education loan as the
There are also special measures such as
Main loan
to SMEs
Government’s disaster
partial easing of income restrictions and
systems
Support by the Japan Finance Corporation for agricultural, forestry,
special measures
extension of repayment period.
and fisheries businesses
Natural calamity loan system for agricultural, forestry, and fisheries
Inquiries
Japan Finance Corporation
businesses provided by the local municipality
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261
Emergency First Aid
Clothing catching fire
Burn degree and treatment
If your clothing catches fire, do not run as this will worsen the fire. Stay where you
Determining burn depth
are and try to extinguish the fire immediately by dropping to the floor or ground and
rolling, removing your clothing, beating your body, pouring water over yourself, etc.
Degree
Damaged tissue
External appearance
Symptom
If someone else’s clothing has caught fire, extinguish the fire by pouring water or
First
Epidermis
Skin is red
Painful, tender and sore
covering the person with your clothes.
degree
When the upper layer of the
Degree of bleeding and treatment
dermis is involved (superficial
second degree) there is strong
Skin is red and appears
pain and a burning sensation.
Arterial bleeding
Second
Dermis
swollen; blisters may
When the lower layer of the
degree
form
dermis is involved (deep
When the blood is bright red and spurts out in rhythm with the pumping
second degree), pain and
of the heart, it is arterial bleeding. Call for an ambulance or medical help
sensation of the skin is
immediately since profuse bleeding could result in death. The most effective
diminished.
first-aid treatment would be to cover the wound with a thick piece of gauze,
Skin is dry and leathery,
etc., and apply direct pressure to the wound to stop the bleeding. When this
Third
Subcutaneous
with no elasticity, is
No pain or sensation of the
is not sufficiently effective, try to stop the bleeding by an indirect method
degree
fat tissue
white and charred in
skin
some areas
in which the thumb, etc., is used to apply pressure on the artery between the
wound and heart.
Details P. 179
Treatment of severe burns
5
Cool the burned area with water over the clothes, and cover the burn with clean thick
Venous bleeding
cloth such as towels, to protect from pressure and friction. See a doctor as soon as
When blood is dark red and flows out continuously, bleeding is from a vein. A large
possible.
amount of blood loss within a short time usually does not occur. Firmly press a
Treatment of light burns P. 182
bandage, etc., on the wound to stop the bleeding.
Exposure to chemical agents
Capillary bleeding
When the skin has come in contact with a chemical agent, wash off with water. Do
When red blood oozes out from a cut on the finger, a knee abrasion after a fall, etc.,
not scrub with a brush, etc., as this will irritate the wound. Immediately dispose of
this is bleeding from the capillary veins. Treat by applying a bandage, etc.
clothing or shoes that have been covered with the chemical. See a doctor as soon as
possible.
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263
Triage at the emergency medical station
Types of Infectious Disease
The arrival of patients at emergency medical stations will be a mixture of both
Infectious diseases range from the annual seasonal influenza to diseases that could
lightly wounded or ill patients and critical patients. In order to achieve the best life
result in death. Under the Infectious Diseases Act, infectious diseases are categorized
saving results in a short period of time, the patients will be evaluated and categorized
into groups from Class 1 to Class 5, and doctors are required to notify the nearest
according to the degree of their illness or wounds, and prioritized for treatment or
public health center when a patient is diagnosed with such a disease.
transfer to a medical facility outside the disaster zone. This is called “triage.”
The evaluation criteria for triage are standardized, and medical practitioners will
Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic
conduct treatment in the order of the triage tag. This is a necessary measure to fully
Class I
fever, smallpox, South American hemorrhagic fever,
use limited resources such as medical staff and drugs, in order to save as many lives as
infectious disease
plague, Marburg disease, and Lassa fever
possible.
Poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, diphtheria, severe acute
respiratory syndrome (limited to those resulting from
Class II
the SARS coronavirus as a beta coronavirus), Middle
infectious disease
East respiratory syndrome (limited to those resulting
from the MERS coronavirus as a beta coronavirus), and
avian influenza (H5N1 and H7N9)
Categorization
Priority
Color tag
Symptoms
Class III
Cholera, bacillary dysentery, enterohemorrhagic E. coli
infectious disease
infection, typhoid, and paratyphoid
Highest priority
Immediate treatment needed to save life.
E hepatitis, West Nile Virus, A hepatitis, echinococcosis,
treatment group
I
Red
Are choking, have extensive bleeding, or
yellow fever, psittacosis, Omsk hemorrhagic fever,
(serious)
are in shock.
relapsing fever, Kyasanuru forest disease, Q fever,
Class IV
rabies, coccidioidomycosis, monkey pox, severe fever
infectious disease
with thrombocytopenia syndrome (limited to those
Slight delay in treatment will not be life
resulting from the phlebovirus genus SFTS virus),
Elective
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, western equine
threatening.
5
treatment group
II
Yellow
Basically have stable breathing and
encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, and others
(moderate)
pulse.
Amoebic dysentery, viral hepatitis (except for
hepatitis E and hepatitis A), carbapenem-resistant
Minor injuries or illness other than the
Enterobacteriaceae bacterial infection, acute
Wait group
III
Green
Class V
encephalitis (except for West Nile encephalitis, western
above, which hardly need treatment by a
(minor)
specialist.
infectious disease
equine encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, eastern
equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan
No breathing even when the airway
equine encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever), and others
Not breathing
has been secured. Already deceased.
group
IV
Black
Or clearly instant death with no
(deceased)
possibility of resuscitation even if CPR
is conducted.
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265
Disaster Volunteers
Tokyo Fire Department (TFD) disaster volunteers
The TFD disaster volunteers are specialized volunteers who are registered in advance
with the TFD to provide support in the event of a large-scale accident or natural
Disaster Volunteers
disaster such as an earthquake with a seismic intensity of 6-lower or more in a district
Disasters volunteers are supporters who willingly take on restoration and recovery
under the jurisdiction of the TFD. These volunteers assemble at their own initiative at
activities in the event of a disaster such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and wind and
the fire station where they are registered or at a nearby fire station, and provide support
flooding from typhoons. You may have a strong image of volunteers conducting
for firefighting activities.
activities such as removing rubble and garbage at the stricken site, helping out at
evacuation centers, and transporting and distributing relief. But their activities cover
Activities of the TFD disaster volunteers
a broader range, including providing mental care to the disaster survivors, holding
consultations and study meetings on rebuilding life, and providing information over
These volunteers support firefighting activities, provide logistics support, etc.,
the Internet.
for instance, supporting the firefighting activities of the department’s firefighters,
supporting rescue activities, providing first aid, and collecting information on the
Fundamentals of volunteer activities
damage situation. In normal times, their main activities are participating in drills and
Disaster survivors can request various kinds of support from volunteers working in the
events in preparation for a disaster. As community disaster response leaders, they
disaster-stricken area, such as removing rubble. However, volunteers are volunteers.
might also coach residents on fire and disaster prevention.
It is up to the volunteers to decide whether or not to take up this request. It should be
understood that they will not always respond to requests when, for instance, it could
be dangerous or if there are not enough volunteers.
How to register as a TFD disaster volunteer
In principle, a person at least 15 years old (excluding middle school students) who
resides, works, or commutes to school in an area under the jurisdiction of the TFD,
Disaster Volunteer Center
and who fulfills one of the following conditions can register.
The Disaster Volunteer Center is a hub of volunteer activities to be installed in the event
5
of a disaster. In general, organizations, such as the social welfare council of the affected
Has knowledge on first aid, such as having completed a lifesaving course.
area, are responsible for the operation of the Disaster Volunteer Center in cooperation
Has at least one-year experience as a volunteer fire corps member or a junior fire corps
with administrative officials and volunteers for smooth volunteer activities.
member
Has qualifications or skills needed to support restoration activities after an earthquake, etc.
(qualified fire defense equipment officer, hazardous materials engineer)
Collecting and comprehending the needs of the disaster site
Preparing to receive and take in people wishing to volunteer
http:www.tfd.metro.tokyo.jp/hp-bousaika/sien/
Adjusting the number of volunteers according to needs, and
*Former TFD employees can register regardless of where they live
Main activities
arranging their activities
Preparing and loaning out needed tools
Feeding back and reporting on the results of activities and matters
that were noted during activities
Discussion on points to be improved
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267
Emergency Contact Numbers
Inquiries Related to Disaster
Preparedness
Telephone Numbers
Type
Office in charge
Telephone
Disaster
Tokyo Metropolitan Government,
preparedness
Bureau of General Affairs,
03-5388-2453
Police (to report a crime or accident)
110
(general inquiries)
Disaster Prevention Division,
Management Section
Fire Department (to report a fire or request an ambulance)
119
Tokyo Metropolitan Government,
River-related floods
Bureau of Construction, River Division,
03-5320-5431
Disaster Prevention Section
Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Tokyo Metropolitan Government,
03-5321-1111
Community
Bureau of Urban Development,
03-5320-5003
Hours: 8:30 a.m. - 6:15 p.m. Weekdays
earthquake risk
Urban Development Projects Division,
Disaster Management Section
Tokyo Metropolitan Health & Medical Information Center
03-5272-0303
Subsidies for seismic
Tokyo Metropolitan Government,
evaluation of buildings,
Bureau of Urban Development,
03-5388-3362
“Himawari” (assistance in a foreign language)
03-5285-8181(Guidance
seismic retrofitting and
Urban Buildings Division,
Hours: 9:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m.
in foreign languages)
reinforcement
Building Planning Section
Subsidies for
Tokyo Metropolitan Government,
seismic evaluation of
Bureau of Urban Development,
03-5320-4944
condominium buildings,
seismic retrofitting and
Housing Policy Promotion Division,
reinforcement
Condominium Policy Section
Multilanguage Resources
Bureau of Waterworks Customer Service
03-5326-1101
Center for the 23 special wards
Water supply
Bureau of Waterworks Customer Service
0570-091-101
Tokyo International Communication
Center for the Tama area
Committee
http://www.tokyo-icc.jp/
Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department,
03-3581-4321
Police
(Living Information website)
Disaster Division
Tokyo Fire Department
03-3212-2111
Tokyo Fire Department
http://www.tfd.metro.tokyo.jp/
Inagi City Fire Department
042-377-7119
5
NHK WORLD (Radio programs in English
http://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/
Oshima Town Fire Department
04992-2-0119
Fire department
and 16 other languages)
english/radio/program/
Miyake Village Fire Department
04994-6-0119
Hachijo Town Fire Department
04996-2-0119
First aid,
Japanese Red Cross Society
volunteering, relief
Tokyo Branch Relief Section
03-5273-6744
and aid
Volunteering
Tokyo Volunteer and Citizens Activity
03-3235-1171
Center
Residents of Musashino City, Akishima City, Hamura City, Hinohara Village, and the islands
should contact the municipality where you live with questions in regard to water supply.
Please direct inquiries related to electric, gas, or telephone service to your service provider.
Please understand that assistance in a foreign language may not be available.
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269
Directory of Sources for Disaster
Management Information
Disaster Preparedness Websites
Tokyo Metropolitan Government
NHK ONLINE
http://www5.nhk.or.jp/saigai/index_fd.html
Disaster Prevention Website
http://www.bousai.metro.tokyo.jp/
(information on disasters nationwide)
Tokyo Fire Department
http://www.tfd.metro.tokyo.jp/
NHK ONLINE
http://www3.nhk.or.jp/weather/
(Weather and disaster nformation)
Office of the Prime Minister of
Japan and His Cabinet
http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/headline/bousai/
(disaster management information)
NHK WORLD
http://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/english/radio/
(radio programs in English and 16
program/
Office of the Prime Minister of
languages)
http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/headline/kansensho/
Japan and His Cabinet
(infectious diseases information)
Cabinet Office
Disaster Preparedness Twitter Accounts
http://www.bousai.go.jp/
(disaster management information)
Cabinet Secretariat Civil Protection
Tokyo Metropolitan Disaster
@tokyo_bousai (Twitter Alert available)
Portal Site (armed attacks and
http://www.kokuminhogo.go.jp/
Prevention
terrorism information)
Tokyo Fire Department
@Tokyo_Fire_D (Twitter Alert available)
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure,
http://www.mlit.go.jp/saigai/
Transport and Tourism (disaster and
Office of the Prime Minister of Japan
disaster prevention information)
and His Cabinet(disaster and crisis
@Kantei_Saigai
management information)
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure,
Transport and Tourism
http://www.river.go.jp/
Cabinet Office Disaster Prevention
@CAO_BOUSAI
(river flooding information)
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure,
@MLIT_JAPAN
Fire and Disaster Management
Transport and Tourism
http://www.fdma.go.jp/
Agency
Fire and Disaster Management
@FDMA_JAPAN
Japan Meteorological Agency
http://www.jma.go.jp/
Agency
Ministry of Health, Labour and
Japan Meteorological Agency
@JMA_kishou
Welfare
http://www.mhlw.go.jp/stf/seisakunitsuite/bunya/
(infectious diseases information)
kenkou_iryou/kenkou/kekkaku-kansenshou/
Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department,
@MPD_bousai
Security Bureau, Disaster Division
Tokyo Metropolitan Police
http://www.keishicho.metro.tokyo.jp/kotu/shinsai_
Department (traffic restrictions
kisei/top.htm
NHK News
@nhk_news
5
following a major earthquake)
Japanese Red Cross Society
@JRCS_PR
Japanese Red Cross Society
http://www.jrc.or.jp/
Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)
@OfficialTEPCO
Zenshakyo volunteer website
http://www.saigaivc.com/
(volunteer information)
Earthquake Early Warning Alerts for Your Mobile Phone
NHK Public Welfare Organization
http://npwo.or.jp/nhkvnet/
Volunteer Network
NTT DoCoMo
https://www.nttdocomo.co.jp/service/safety/areamail/
Tokyo Electric Power Company
(TEPCO) information on power
http://www.tepco.co.jp/life/custom/q_and_a/komatta/
outages, etc.
au
http://www.au.kddi.com/mobile/anti-disaster/kinkyu-sokuho/
Tokyo Gas (how to safely resetting
your gas meter)
http://home.tokyo-gas.co.jp/userguide/anzen/meter/reset/
SoftBank
http://www.softbank.jp/mobile/service/urgent_news/about/eew/
The General Insurance Association
http://www.sonpo.or.jp/
of Japan
Y!mobile
http://www.ymobile.jp/service/urgent_mail/
Please note that information may only be provided in Japanese on some of these sites
and Twitter accounts.
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271
Safety Confirmation Services
Tokyo Fire Department Life Safety Learning Centers
NTT East
http://www.ntt-east.co.jp/saigai/web171/
Address:
2-37-8 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo
Telephone: 03-3590-6565
NTT DoCoMo
http://www.nttdocomo.co.jp/info/disaster/
Access:
5 minute walk from Ikebukuro Station served by JR and other
Ikebukuro
railways. Use the South, West or Metropolitan Exit.
Life Safety
au
http://www.au.kddi.com/mobile/anti-disaster/saigai-dengon/
Hours:
9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
Learning
Closed:
Tuesdays and every third Wednesday (If either day is a national
Center
holiday, the center will be closed the following day.), end of
SoftBank
http://www.softbank.jp/mobile/service/dengon/
the year/new year’s holiday
Admission: Free
Y!mobile
http://ymobile.jp/service/dengon/
Address:
4-6-6 Yokokawa, Sumida-ku, Tokyo
J-anpi
http://anpi.jp/
Telephone: 03-3621-0119
Honjo
Access:
10 minute walk from JR Sobu Line Kinshicho Station North
Life Safety
Exit or Tokyo Metro Hanzomon Line Kinshicho Station Exit
Learning
No. 4, 10 minute walk from Keisei Oshiage Line Oshiage
Transportation Information
Station (also served by other railways) Exit B1.
Center
Hours:
9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
Closed:
Wednesdays and every third Thursday (If either day is a
East Japan Railway Company
national holiday, the center will be closed the following day.),
http://traininfo.jreast.co.jp/train_info/
(operations information)
end of the year/new year’s holiday
Admission: Free
Tokyo Metro
http://www.tokyometro.jp/unkou/
(operations information)
Address:
1156-1 Izumi-cho, Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo
Toei Subway
Telephone: 042-521-1119
http://www.kotsu.metro.tokyo.jp/subway/schedule/
(operations information)
Access:
Bus from JR Tachikawa Station North Exit (board at stop no. 1).
Japan Road Traffic Information
Tachikawa
Short walk from the Tachikawa Shobosho (Fire Department)
http://www.jartic.or.jp/
bus stop. 15 minute walk from Takamatsu Station Tama
Center
Life Safety
Monorail.
Haneda Airport
Learning
http://jatns.tokyo-airport-bldg.co.jp/flight/
Hours:
9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
(flight information)
Center
Closed:
Thursdays and every third Friday (If either day is a national
Narita Airport (flight information)
http://www.narita-airport.jp/jp/flight/
holiday, the center will be closed the following day.), end of
the year/new year’s holiday
Admission: Free
Transportation Information Twitter Accounts
5
Tokyo Metropolitan
Kyokyu Line
@keikyu_official
Please note that information may only be provided in Japanese on some of
Government,
operation
Bureau of
information
these sites and Twitter accounts.
Transportation
@toeikotsu
(Toei Subway, Toden
Seibu Railway
Arakawa Line, Nippori-
operation
@seiburailway
Toneri Liner)
information
East Japan Railway
Tokyu Line’s
Company
@JREast_official
service
@tokyu_official
information
Odakyu Line
@odakyuline_info
Operations Status
Rinkai Line official
announcement
@twr_official
Keio Railway
Yurikamome’s
Operations
@keiodentetsu
official
Information
announcement
@yurikamome_info
Keisei Railway
Tama Monorail
@tamamono_info
@keiseirailway
Operations Information
information
272
273
Pictograms
Evacuation Center
People whose homes were destroyed or have collapsed
Support Stations
due to an earthquake or other disaster and have no place
Facilities (convenience stores, fast food shops, casual
to go are accepted here for a period of time. In addition,
restaurants, gas stations, and other establishments)
these facilities provide disaster-related information and
that will support people who have become stranded
JIS Z8210
distribute goods to people affected by the disaster.
following a disaster and are attempting to return home
on foot. Support stations will provide road information,
drinking water, toilet facilities, a place to rest, and other
assistance.
Evacuation Area
Open areas such as large parks that have the amount of
space needed to protect the lives of evacuees from the
spread of fire caused by a major earthquake and other
dangers.
Tsunami Evacuation Area
JIS Z8210
This sign indicates a safe location or elevated ground
where people can evacuate to when a tsunami occurs.
Temporary Evacuation Area
JIS Z8210
Places where evacuees gather temporarily to grasp the situation prior to moving to the
5
evacuation area. These are school yards, neighborhood parks, and other places with
enough space to secure the safety of the people gathered there.
Tsunami Evacuation Building
This sign indicates a reinforced concrete building that
Temporary Shelter
has at least three floors where people can evacuate to
if there is no elevated ground nearby when a tsunami
A facility where people who are unable to return home following a disaster can temporarily
occurs.
stay. There are 200 metropolitan-owned facilities designated to serve as temporary shelters.
JIS Z8210
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275
Symbols for People Who Need
Special Care in an Emergency
Help Mark
Mark for the Hearing Impaired
A mark used by people with conditions that are not
This mark indicates that the holder has a hearing impairment, and
outwardly apparent, such as a prosthetic limb or joint,
is used in situations such as when requesting consideration with
internal medical condition, intractable disease, or the early
regard to how to communicate. It is also used at institutions such as
stages of pregnancy. The mark is displayed to inform those
local governments, hospitals, and banks to indicate that assistance
around them of their need for special consideration.
is provided to people with hearing impairments.
Mark for Expectant Mothers
Help Card
A mark displayed by expectant mothers to indicate the
A card created to help those with disabilities or other
condition, especially in the early stages of pregnancy when it
conditions inform the people around them about their
is not yet outwardly apparent.
disability or condition when an emergency or disaster occurs.
Information such as emergency contact numbers and details
Mark for Assistance Dogs
on the type of support they require is printed on the card.
This mark is posted at the entrance to businesses that accept
certified assistance dogs (guide dogs, service dogs, and
hearing dogs) in accordance with the Act on Assistance Dogs
International Symbol of Access
for Physically Disabled Persons. Under the act, facilities
This symbol is the universal symbol that indicates a building,
used by a large number of people such as departments stores
form of public transportation, etc., is accessible to people
and restaurants are required to accept assistance dogs.
with disabilities. This symbol is not for wheelchair users
only, but for all people with disabilities.
5
Ostomate Mark
This symbol, representing an ostomate (someone who has an
ostomy or an artificial bladder), is displayed to indicate that a
International Symbol of Access for Individuals
facility has toilet facilities for ostomates, etc.
Who Are Blind
Designated as the universal symbol by the World Blind
Federation in 1984, this symbol is displayed on buildings,
Heart Plus Mark
facilities, equipment, and other objects developed with
This mark is used to represent people with internal
special consideration for the safety and accessibility of the
conditions that are not readily apparent to others such
visually impaired. The symbol is used on crosswalk signals,
as those associated with the heart, respiratory functions,
voice guidance devices, international mail containing
kidneys, bladder, rectum, small intestine, liver, and immune
materials in braille, books, printed materials, etc.
system.
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277
**The map below was recreated based on data from the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau of Urban
Combined Risk in Light of
Development using Color Urban Design.
Emergency Response Difficulty
The Seventh Community Earthquake
Risk Assessment Study
5
 5 (1 - 84)
 4 (85 - 36)
 3 (369 - 1,181)
 2 (1182 - 2815)
 1 (2816 - 5133)
(Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau of Urban Development, 2013)
Combined risk ratings were determined by aggregating a community’s building
activities in addition to overall combined risk. This data assesses the status of the
collapse risk ranking and fire risk ranking, and then ranking this sum. Communities
development of roads that will serve important roles when a disaster strikes such as
with high combined risk need to develop measures tailored to the characteristics of
community roads and city-planned roads. The combined risk in light of emergency
each area. The “combined risk in light of emergency response difficulty” rating takes
response difficulty is made available by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government on the
into account the difficulty of emergency response such as evacuation and fire/rescue
following website:
http:www.toshiseibi.metro.tokyo.jp/bosai/chousa_6/home.htm
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279
** The map below was recreated based on data from the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department using Color
Traffic Restrictions Following
Universal Design.
a Major Earthquake
Regular roads to be designated as Routes for Authorized Emergency Vehicles
Expressways to be designated as Routes for Authorized Emergency Vehicles
Key road routes to be designated, if necessary, as Emergency Access Roads
5
Directly following a major earthquake, traffic restrictions (stage 1 restrictions) will be implemented in
Furthermore, even when an earthquake strikes that does not qualify as a massive earthquake (an
order to prevent danger on roads, as well as to ensure the smooth passage of emergency vehicles engaged
earthquake measuring a 6 lower and higher on the Japanese seismic intensity scale), traffic restrictions
in activities such as rescue and firefighting, based on the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 105 of 1960).
may be put into place based on the Road Traffic Act when an earthquake measuring a 5 upper occurs.
Disaster response routes for emergency vehicles are then secured (stage 2 restrictions) to ensure that
Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department
emergency response can be carried out accurately and smoothly based on the Disaster Countermeasures
http://www.keishicho.metro.tokyo.jp/foreign/earthquake/english_270309.pdf
Basic Act (Act No. 223 of 1961).
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281
A Day in Tokyo
Number of traffic accidents
115
(2013)
Number of traffic accident fatalities
0.5
(2013)
Number of ambulance transports
2,052
(2013)
Births
301
(2013)
Deaths
303
(2013)
Number of fire outbreaks
14.2
(2013)
Average life span
Men: 79.82
(2010)
Number of fire trucks dispatched
96
(2013)
Women: 86.39
(2010)
Number of emergency calls to the police
3,913
(2013)
Successful employment
411
(FY2013)
Number of recorded crimes
445
(2013)
Number of crimes cleared
123
(2013)
Move out
975
(2014)
Move in
1,176
(2014)
Trash disposal (includes recyclable
Food expenditure per household
resources) per resident
950 g
(FY2012)
with 2 or more members
2,639 yen
(2013)
Gross regional product
251.8 billion yen
(FY2012)
JR line passengers
9,089 million
(FY2013)
5
Marriages
241
(2013)
Lighting consumption per resident
6.1 kW
(FY2013)
Divorces
68
(2013)
Number of books lent out by
Figures are simple averages derived by dividing the figure for that year or fiscal year
by the number of days in that year.
public libraries
313,000
(FY2013)
Lighting consumption is the amount of power consumed by households and stores
for lighting and home appliances
Number of newly employed people indicates the number of people confirmed to
have found a job through Hello Work.
Figures per resident are simple averages derived by dividing the total figure by that
year’s population
(“Life and Statistics 2015,” Bureau of General Affairs, Tokyo Metropolitan Government)
282
283
Tokyo
s Ranking in Japan
Item
Tokyo
Japan
Rank
As of
Item
Tokyo
Japan
Rank
As of
Monthly living
Land/Climate
Area
2,189
377,962 km2
45th
Oct. 1, 2013
Household
expenditure per
363.7 thousand
318.7 thousand
---
2013 average
Home
expenditure
45.8%
61.7%
47th
Oct. 1, 2013
household
ownership rate
Number of
Total area per
646
8,540
1st
Oct. 1, 2013
Health care and
hospitals
Housing
dwelling in an
environment
Total area of
exclusively
63.54 m2
92.97 m2
47th
Oct. 1, 2013
79,889 ha
5,431,321 ha
27th
March 31, 2014
natural parks
residential
dwelling
Regional
difference index
Total
Prices
105.9
100
---
2013 average
of consumer
population
13.3 million
127.298 million
1st
Oct. 1, 2013
prices
(estimate)
Nominal
Foreign
Regional
472.6 trillion
407 thousand
2,066 thousand
1st
Dec. 31, 2013
gross regional
91.9 trillion yen
---
FY 2012
residents
economy
yen
product
People moving
432 thousand
2,405 thousand
1st
2014
Number of
in
private business
627 thousand
5,454 thousand
1st
Feb. 1, 2012
People moving
establishments
Population and
356 thousand
2,405 thousand
1st
2014
out
household
Number
Businesses
Total fertility
of people
1.13
1.43
47th
2014
rate
employed
8.655 million
55.837 million
1st
Feb. 1, 2012
Private
by private
6.38 million
51.84 million
1st
Oct. 1, 2010
households
businesses
Average
Agriculture,
Agricultural
number
forestry and
27.1 billion yen
8.6 trillion yen
47st
2012
2.03 people
2.42 people
47th
Oct. 1, 2010
output
of private
fisheries
households
Manufactured
292.1 trillion
Ratio of job
Industry
product
7.9 trillion yen
13st
2013
yen
openings to job
1.57
1.09
---
2014 average
shipments
seekers
Commercial
Yearly
182.2 trillion
548.2 trillion
and service
1st
2007
5
commodity sale
yen
yen
Average
industries
monthly
General account
salary before
463,833 yen
357,972 yen
---
2013 average
Finances
6.7 trillion yen
95.9 trillion yen
----
FY 2014
budget
deductions per
Labor
Number of
person
42 thousand
629 thousand
4st
2013
traffic accidents
Average
Number of
163 thousand
1,314 thousand
1st
2013
monthly
recorded crimes
150.1 hours
149.3 hours
---
2014 average
Police and
working hours
Number of fire
firefighting
5,213
48,095
1st
2013
per person
outbreaks
Unemployment
Number of fire
3.8%
3.6%
---
2013 average
rate
outbreaks per
3.97
3.75
20th
2013
10,000 residents
Monthly earned
Household
549.8 thousand
486.6 thousand
income per
---
2013 average
budget
yen
yen
household
(“Life and Statistics 2015,” Bureau of General Affairs, Tokyo Metropolitan Government)
284
285
Let's get prepared !
外国人向け今やろう
Prepare an emergency bag.
This manual contains valuable
Prepare an emergency bag that contains the minimum essentials needed
for the time being after you evacuate.
information on various types of
disasters and how to protect
yourself and your family
DO
when one strikes. The 10
most important steps to take
Have important items ready to carry with you.
NOW
immediately are outlined below.
Keep passports, certificates, records, and other important documents in a
LET'S GET PREPARED MARK
Make sure to refer to this list as
plastic case with a fastener.
you get prepared!
Hold a family meeting.
Divide responsibilities between family members in
Check the layout of furniture in your home.
advance, such as who will be in charge of preventing a
Ensure that furniture is arranged so that it will not topple over or slide
fire and who will secure an exit path.
across the floor, resulting in injury or blocking your escape path.
Confirm the nearest evacuation area
and evacuation center.
Stabilize furnishings in your home.
Review the locations of the evacuation areas and
Stabilize the furniture and household appliances in all rooms of your home
evacuation centers nearest to your home.
to prevent them from falling over or sliding across the floor.
5
Register to receive alerts and useful
information.
Check the seismic resistance of your home.
Register to receive Twitter Alerts and other useful
Use the do-it-yourself seismic resistance checklist in this manual
information on disaster preparedness.
(p. 107) to check the seismic resistance of your home.
Make stockpiling items a part of your
daily life
Participate in disaster prevention drills.
Ensure that you have ample stockpiles of water,
Enhance your awareness and disaster preparedness skills by participating
food, and emergency supplies by buying a little more
in local disaster drills.
than you need and continuously replenishing items
throughout the course of daily life.
286
287
Helpful Phrases
非常時に使える英会話
WHEN A DISASTER STRIKES
Q
災害発生時の行動 
Where is the evacuation center?
避難場所はどこですか
(Hinanjo wa doko desuka?)
Q
Where is the evacuation center?
I
ll show you the way. Let
s go together.
避難所はどこですか
案内します。一緒に行きましょう。
(Hinanjo wa doko desuka?)
(Annai shimasu. Issho ni ikimasho.)
A
The ABC Park/ABC Elementary School/ABC area just
over there is serving as an evacuation center.
Q
Where should we go? Where is a safe place to go?
そこの近くにあるOO(OO小学校・OO地区が避難場所に
どこに逃げればいいですか 安全な場所を教えて下さい。
なっています。
(Doko ni nigereba iidesuka? Anzen na basho wo
(Soko no chikaku ni aru XXX koen/XXX shogakko/
oshiete kudasai.)
XXX chiku ga hinanjyo ni natteimasu.)
Do you have a map? You should evacuate here.
A
地図を持っていますかあなたはそこに避難すべきです
図を見て案内
Q
(Chizu wo motteimasuka? Anata wa soko ni
I am looking for my family.
hinan subeki desu.)
家族を探しています。
A
5
(Kazoku wo sagashiteimasu.)
Q
What is the name of this place?
ここは、どこですか。
Please go to the evacuation center in the area
(Koko wa doko desu ka?)
where your family lived and ask the staff for
information.
You are in XXX. You are near XXX. This is the
家族が住んでいたところの近くの避難所で、係の人に 聞いてくだ
XXX elementary school.
さい近くの避難所を案内
ここは、O(OOの近くです。
(Kazoku ga sundeita tokoro no chikaku no hinanjo
(Koko wa XXX desu. Koko wa XXX no chikaku
de kakari no hito ni kiitekudasai.)
desu.)
A
A
288
289
LIFE IN AN EVACUATION CENTER
Q
When will roads be open again? Which roads
避難生活
are passable?
道路はいつから通れますかどこの道路が通れますか
(Doro wa itsu tooremasuka? Doko no doro ga
tooremasuka?)
Q
Route XX going from XX to XX is closed
I need information in English.
between XX and XX.
英語の情報がほしいです。
XXからXXに向かうXXX号線は、XX~XXの間は通れ
(Eigo no joho ga hoshii desu.)
ません。
(XX kara XX ni mukau XXX go-sen wa, XX̃XX
Please try the NHK World website.
no aida tooremasen.)
You will be able to get news in English and
A
other languages.
NHK WORLDのサイトを見て下さい。英語と他の外国語
Q
でニュースを提供しています。
Where can I get (food/water/a blanket)?
(NHK WORLD no site wo mite kudasai. Eigo
食べ物・水・毛布はどこで手に入りますか
to hoka no gaikokugo de nyuusu wo teikyo
(Tabemono/mizu/mofu) wa doko de te ni
shiteimasu.)
hairimasuka?
A
I asked the person in charge. Please wait.
係の人にお願いしたので待っていてください。
Q
(Kakari no hito ni onegasishita node matteite
When will transportation be back in service?
kudasai.)
電車・バス・空港はいつ復旧しますか。
(Densha, basu, kuuko) wa itsu fukkyuu
A
5
shimasuka?
Q
Where can I make an international call?
国際電話はどこでかけられますか
Information on transportation services
(Kokusaidenwa wa dokode kakeraremasuka?)
(trains, buses, ships/ferries, flights) will be
updated on TV and the radio.
バス・船・飛行機の情報は、テレビとラジオで お知ら
せしています。
I will check. Please wait a moment.
(Densha, basu, fune, hikoki) no joho wa,
調べるので待っていてください。
terebi to rajio de oshiraseshiteimasu.)
(Shiraberu node matteite kudasai.)
A
A
290
291
Start Preparing with
DO
NOW
Your Family Now
Confirm your evacuation center
Decide how to contact each other
Name of center
Contact method
Map showing the route from home and where to meet up
Decide the place (the evacuation center, etc.) where your family will meet if the
Decide in advance how your family will confirm each other’s safety, such as the
members are separated due to work, school, shopping, or other reasons when a disaster
disaster emergency message dial, message board, and SNS. Share your contact
occurs. Use the Disaster Prevention Map and other information to select a safe place.
information with relatives and friends far away. This could be helpful because even
It would be reassuring if you make the meeting place specific, such as near the jungle
when telephone lines are congested within the area affected by a disaster, calls to and
gym at a school playground or the bench at a park.
Details P. 115
from other areas are sometimes easier to get through
Details P. 128
Confirm your evacuation route
Decide each family member
s role
Evacuation route from home (1)
Prepare emergency supplies
of food and other items
Check the emergency bag
Check electricity, gas,
Evacuation route from home (2)
and water
Check measures for preventing
furniture from falling over
Other
Walk through the evacuation route in advance. You should do it twice, at daytime and
Assign roles to each of your family members, such as who will be turning off the
night, and check whether there are hazardous spots, as well as where you would be
flame, who is in charge of the emergency bag, and who takes measures to prevent
able to rest and use a toilet. It is important to check multiple routes to prepare for a
furniture from falling over. If everyone fulfills their roles, your family can act calmly
case in which one of them will not be safe due to a fire or other reasons.
without going into a panic.
Details P. 084-112
Details P. 040
292
293
Personal Information
DO
Family Information
DO
NOW
NOW
Name
Name
Date of birth / Gender
(age
)
Date of birth/Gender
(age
)
Blood type
A B O AB Rh
+ ,
Blood type
A B O AB Rh
+ ,
Allergy / Health problems
Allergy / Health problems
Medication
Medication
Address
Mobile number
-
-
Phone number
-
-
School/Workplace
Mobile number
-
-
School/Workplace
Name
(age
)
Date of birth / Gender
Blood type
A B O AB Rh
+ ,
Allergy / Health problems
-
-
Emergency contact
Medication
Mobile number
-
-
School/Workplace
294
295
Name
Name
Date of birth / Gender
(age
)
Date of birth / Gender
(age
)
Blood type
Blood type
A B O AB Rh
+ ,
A B O AB Rh
+ ,
Allergy / Health problems
Allergy / Health problems
Medication
Medication
Mobile number
-
-
Mobile number
-
-
School/Workplace
School/Workplace
Name
Name
(age
)
(age
)
Date of birth / Gender
Date of birth / Gender
Blood type
A B O AB Rh
+ ,
Blood type
A B O AB Rh
+ ,
Allergy / Health problems
Allergy / Health problems
Medication
Medication
Mobile number
Mobile number
-
-
-
-
School/Workplace
School/Workplace
296
297
Memo
Name
Date of birth / Gender
(age
)
Blood type
A B O AB Rh
+ ,
Allergy / Health problems
Medication
Mobile number
-
-
School/Workplace
Name
(age
)
Date of birth / Gender
Blood type
A B O AB Rh
+ ,
Allergy / Health problems
Medication
Mobile number
-
-
School/Workplace
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
Index of Glossary Terms
Area with steep slopes at risk of
P. 167
P. 254
A
landslides
An area with a 30-degree or steeper slope
Chest compression
Direct pressure method
Act concerning the Measures for
where a landslide could cause damage to
Also called external cardiac massage, chest
A method to stop bleeding where pressure is
Protection of the People in Armed
housing.
compressions are given with both hands near the
applied directly to the point of bleeding using your
Attack Situations, etc.
P. 116
heart to a person in cardiopulmonary arrest, in order
hand or fingers to stop the flow of blood.
A law enacted in 2004 with the aim of
to restore blood circulation.
PP. 179, 263
protecting the lives and properties of the
Arterial bleeding
P. 177
citizens.
A type of bleeding in which bright red blood
Disaster disability compensation
P. 164
spurts out in rhythm with the pumping of the
Commissioned welfare volunteer
money
heart.
A part-time local government employee
In accordance with the law, compensation money
Active fault
PP. 178, 263
commissioned by the ministerofhealth,labourandw
will be paid to those who have become severely
A fault that has repeatedly caused earthquakes
elfare , who is tasked with providing consultation
disabled due to the disaster (blindness in both eyes,
since the prehistoric age, and is predicted to
to local residents while placing himself/herself in
constant need of nursing care, severance of both
B
their position, extending necessary assistance, and
arms above the elbow joint, etc.).
be active in the future.
P. 238
trying to enhance social welfare.
P. 255
Baiu stationary front
P. 124
Advisory
A stationary front that moves from south to north
Disaster Emergency Message Dial
An advisory is issued by the Japan
over the Japanese archipelago during the seasonal
Communications drill
A service provided by Nippon Telegraph and
Meteorological Agency when there is the risk
transition from spring to mid-summer.
A drill to practice communicating information
Telephone Corp. (NTT). A disaster survivor can dial
that heavy rain, strong wind, etc. will cause a
P. 146
about fires, rescue/relief, and earthquake damage
171 and record a message, and those who wish to
disaster.
properly to firefighting authorities, via telephone or
contact the person can listen to the message.
PP. 145, 246
Biological agent
in person.
PP. 128, 226
Bacteria, viruses, or poisonous substances produced
P. 133
AED (automated external defibrillator)
by them, etc. used as weapons.
Disaster map exercise
A device that gives an electric shock to a
PP. 165, 167
Cross-bracing
A type of disaster drill referred to as DIG
person in cardiopulmonary arrest to restore
Steel bars installed in an X-shape to reinforce steel-
(“Disaster” “Imagination” “Game”).
the heart's ability to pump blood. Installed
Building collapse risk
frame buildings.
P. 140
at public places such as railway stations and
The degree of risk that a building will collapse or
P. 113
schools.
lean because of an earthquake.
Disaster Message Board
PP. 53, 177
PP. 118, 278
Cumulonimbus
A service provided by mobile phone carriers to
A massive cloud that develops vertically due to
enable people to confirm each other's safety via
Aerosol spray type fire extinguisher
powerful upward air currents and can produce rain
text messages. To use the service, visit the portal site
C
A fire extinguisher that sprays a fire-
and lightning. With a height of more than 10 km,
of your mobile phone carrier.
extinguishing agent by gas pressure. Can
these clouds sometimes reach the stratosphere.
PP. 128, 227
be used handily at home. Useful for first
Canal
PP. 150, 245
response firefighting.
An artificial channel to deliver water for agricultural
Disaster preparedness education
P. 110
and/or urban use.
Teaching people knowledge needed to
D
P. 151
protect themselves in natural disasters, such as
Alluvium
preparations and actions to take in a disaster.
A weak stratum that is relatively new, formed
Capillary bleeding
Daily stockpile
PP. 135, 140
about 10,000 to 20,000 years ago or earlier.
Blood oozing out from capillary veins.
Purchasing and storing extra supplies of food and
It is difficult to construct heavy buildings on
PP. 178, 263
other items that you use on a daily basis.
Disaster prevention map
alluvium.
PP. 85, 92
In addition to showing areas expected to sustain
P. 116
Chemical agent
damage when a disaster occurs, evacuation areas
Sarin or other toxic chemicals that can be used as
Damage certificate
and routes, this map also includes disaster
weapons in terrorist attacks, etc.
A certificate issued by municipalities on the degree
prevention agencies and other helpful information.
of damage to dwellings, etc., caused by disasters
P. 161
such as earthquakes, floods, and wind.
306
307
Disaster reconstruction loan
Drain cock
P. 113
Ethanol
A loan to support small and medium-sized
A valve for controlling the amount of water supply
A type of alcohol. Volatile. Used for sterilizing and
companies that were affected by the disaster in
or drainage.
Earthquake-resistant wall
disinfecting, and also as fuel.
rebuilding their business.
P. 191
A wall of a building that can resist horizontal forces
P. 65
P. 261
created by an earthquake, wind, etc.
Drill to prevent fire outbreaks
P. 50
Evacuation area
Disaster relief fund
Training to prevent fire outbreaks when a disaster
When an earthquake occurs causing a large-scale
When a disaster occurs and the Disaster Relief Act
strikes.
Electrical current leak
fire to spread, this is a place to evacuate to in order
is applied, these funds are used by the municipalities
P. 133
Electricity leaking out due to causes such as
to protect yourself from the flames. Places such as
to offer low-interest loans to households that have
damaged wires and damaged insulation due to age.
large parks, areas rich with greenery, and fireproof
been affected by the disaster, in order to help
Dust
PP. 110, 111
building districts are designated as evacuation
rebuild their lives.
Fine powder consisting of dry particles that floats
areas.
P. 256
in the air.
Emergency bag
PP. 40, 120, 274
P. 166
A bag that contains the essential goods to take with
Disaster response goods and
you when you have to evacuate.
Evacuation center
equipment
Dust goggles
P. 90, 92
A place that temporarily accommodates and
Equipment and tools used to prevent the spread of
Protective goggles that protect your eyes from
provides shelter to those affected by a disaster,
disaster.
smoke generated by a fire, volcanic ash, etc.
Emergency light
whose homes have collapsed, burned down, etc.
P. 137
PP. 161, 163
A light that automatically turns on in the event of a
Public facilities such as schools and community
blackout.
centers are designated as evacuation centers.
Disaster response routes for
Dust mask
P. 23
PP. 40, 56, 274
emergency vehicles
Protective mask that prevents you from inhaling
Major roads designated to serve as the main
smoke generated by a fire, volcanic ash, etc.
Emergency stockpile
Evacuation drill
arteries for evacuation, rescue and firefighting
PP. 161, 163
Stocking supplies in preparation for emergencies.
Training to learn your evacuation route and to
activities, and the transport of emergency supplies
PP. 55, 85, 93
safely evacuate without panicking.
when a disaster strikes. These roads will be closed
P. 134
E
to non-emergency vehicles.
Emergency Stockpile Day
PP. 33, 280
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has
Evacuation hatch
Earthquake directly hitting Tokyo
designated November 19 as Emergency Stockpile
A hatch equipped with hanging ladders for
Disaster sympathy money
An earthquake directly hitting the National Capital
Day.
evacuation.
In accordance with the law, sympathy money will
Region that is predicted to occur within the next 30
P. 55
P. 48
be paid to the families of those who lost their lives
years with a 70 percent probability.
in the disaster.
PP. 15, 52, 68
Emergency temporary housing
Evacuation route
P. 254
Emergency housing built under the Disaster Relief
A route which one takes when evacuating.
Earthquake resistance
Act. Provided to people who have no place to live
PP. 21, 23, 95, 114, 119,
153, 161
Disaster volunteers
The degree to which a building or other structure
because their homes have collapsed, burned down,
Volunteers who support recovery and rebuilding
can withstand an earthquake.
or become uninhabitable for other reasons.
Eyewall
following a disaster, such as an earthquake, tsunami,
PP. 107, 118
PP. 69, 259
A tall ring of dense cumulonimbus clouds
or a wind and flood disaster caused by a typhoon.
surrounding the eye of a typhoon. This is where the
P. 266
Earthquake resistance standards
Emergency vehicle
(emergency car)
strongest wind and rain of the storm occurs.
Standards ensuring that a building fulfills the
A vehicle used to respond to an emergency, such as
P. 245
Disorder of consciousness
minimum requirements for earthquake-resistant
for disaster relief.
A condition where a person becomes unable
design.
PP. 39, 280
to properly respond to the people around him/
PP. 24, 108
F
her following trauma to the head, etc. Disorders
Emergency warning
range from the minor to the severe, including
Earthquake-resistant shelter
An emergency warning is issued by the Japan
Facebook
disorientation/confusion, drowsiness/somnolence,
A structure that can protect the bedroom or
Meteorological Agency when there is a very high
A social networking service that allows users to
numbness, and coma.
sleeping area even if the house collapses due to an
risk of a severe disaster.
connect and interact with their real-world friends
P. 186
earthquake.
PP. 145, 247, 248
using their real names.
P. 43
308
309
J
Fall stationary front
Gutter
Household stockpile
A stationary front that moves from north to south
Ditches built along roads or railway tracks to drain
Stocking food and daily items according to the
Jack
over the Japanese archipelago during the seasonal
water.
family structure.
A device used to lift something, typically a car that
transition from summer to fall.
PP. 147, 148, 151
P. 88
needs a tire change.
P. 146
P. 53
Housing with a semi-basement
H
Fire risk
A house with space that is partially below the level
J-anpi
The degree of the risk of wide-area damage
of surrounding roads.
A free service that can be used from a computer,
from the spread of fires breaking out due to an
Hands-on training for disaster
PP. 147, 151
smartphone, mobile phone, etc., to check the safety
earthquake.
response
of an individual by entering his/her phone number
PP. 118, 278
An event where participants can learn about
or name. In addition to safety information on the
I
disasters while enjoying hands-on training.
disaster message boards of mobile phone carriers,
Fire-safe area
P. 135
you can also access safety information collected by
An area where fireproofing has progressed and
Income tax casualty loss deduction
companies and organizations.
where there is no fear of large-scale spread of fires.
Hazard lights
An income tax deduction you can receive when
P. 120
Lights used to the draw the attention of the drivers
your home or household possessions have been
around you, especially of the car behind you.
damaged due to a natural disaster, fire, etc.
PP. 129, 272
L
First response firefighting drill
P. 32
P. 257
A drill to learn how to use a home-use fire
extinguisher, standpipe, portable fire pump and other
Hazard map
Indirect pressure method
Large-scale fire
firefighting devices and equipment.
A map that contains information such as areas
A method used to temporarily stop the flow of
A fire that can break out over a large area when an
P. 132
predicted to suffer damages, evacuation areas,
blood by pressing down on the artery between the
earthquake occurs. Such a fire is expected to result
and evacuation routes, for use in mitigating
injury and the heart, compressing it against the bone.
in many injuries and deaths.
First response firefighting
damages from a natural disaster and for disaster
PP. 179, 263
P. 45
An emergency measure taken to extinguish a fire
preparedness.
in its early stages when the flames have not yet
P. 119
Indoor fire hose
Lifeguard
reached the ceiling.
A fire hose installed indoors. Has highly effective
A person with a license issued by the Japan
PP. 18, 46, 78, 188
Heat stroke
water discharge capability and range.
Lifesaving Association, whose job is to prevent
A condition that occurs when you have engaged
P. 189
water accidents at places such as beaches where
Flood risk area map
in activities such as work and exercise under
swimming is permitted.
A map showing areas that are likely to flood when
the blazing sun. Symptoms such as dehydration,
Infiltration inlet
P. 49
there is a torrential downpour that greatly exceeds
seizures, and weakness appear, sometimes even
A place where rainwater that has fallen on the
the flood control capacity of rivers and sewerage
leading to death.
grounds collects.
Lifeline
systems.
PP. 65, 185, 194
148
Infrastructure indispensable to daily life, such as
P. 148
electricity, water, gas and telephone services.
Hello Work
Inundation
PP. 55, 84
Food poisoning
A public employment security office. An
Being flooded. A disaster in which a residential
A condition caused by eating food contaminated
administrative body that the Ministry of Health,
area or farmland is inundated due to rainfall that
Literacy
by bacteria or a virus, or food that contains a
Labour and Welfare established with the aim
exceeds the drainage capacity of gutters or the
Knowledge about a certain field, and the ability to
poisonous or harmful substance.
to secure stable employment opportunities for
sewerage system. This is called a flood disaster.
use such knowledge.
P. 64
citizens.
PP. 147, 148
P. 172
PP. 70, 260
Islands
Long-period ground motion
G
Hemorrhagic shock
A region with islands of various sizes. In Tokyo,
Earthquake-induced slow shaking with a period of
A condition in which blood flow decreases due
there are the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands.
a few seconds or more, which travels far from the
Ground fault circuit interrupter
to internal or external bleeding, so that sufficient
PP. 37, 117, 160
earthquake focus.
A device that quickly shuts down the power after a
blood cannot be delivered to tissues and organs
PP. 97, 240
current leak to prevent a disaster.
around the body.
P. 110
P. 185
310
311
M
Overnight disaster drill at school
Winds that flow from west to east at high altitudes,
A drill conducted at school, which simulates
in the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere.
Magnitude
evacuation life after a disaster, through activities
P. 244
S
A unit for measuring energy from an earthquake.
such as preparing for sleep and preparing stockpiled
P. 239
food.
Propane gas
Safety confirmation services
P. 131
Liquefied petroleum gas that is supplied from a
Services for confirming the safety of your family
Micon-meter (intelligent gas meter)
tank installed at homes. City gas, on the other hand,
and friends in the event of a disaster, such as the
A meter that shuts down the gas and displays a
is supplied through gas lines that run under roads.
Disaster Emergency Message Dial provided by
P
warning when a problem occurs with gas flow
P. 111
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. (NTT) and
or pressure, or when an earthquake measuring a 5
the Disaster Message Boards provided by mobile
upper on the Japanese seismic scale occurs.
Pandemic
Public health center
phone carriers.
P. 111
A nationwide or worldwide outbreak of an
A public agency that supports the health of local
P. 272
infectious disease.
residents and sanitation.
Mutual help
P. 170
PP. 171, 265
Sandbag
The concept of people in the same neighborhood
A cloth bag filled with sand that is used as a
helping each other in the event of a disaster to
Passive smoking
material for civil engineering applications, which
protect lives and the community.
Inhaling secondhand smoke from cigarettes.
R
can also be used to prevent flood damage.
P. 52
P. 63
PP. 147, 148
Radar and Nowcasts weather map
People who need special care
for tornadoes
Secondary disaster
N
The elderly, the disabled, infants, foreign nationals,
A service of the Japan Meteorological Agency
A disaster caused by the initial disaster, such as a
and other people in need of special care.
which analyzes 10 km zones, and forecasts the
fire following an earthquake.
Neighborhood disaster response
PP. 58, 66
probability of a tornado developing, up to one hour
PP. 45, 95
group
ahead (10 to 60 min ahead).
A group actively engaged in disaster preparedness
People who need special support in
P. 157
Secondary evacuation center (welfare
activities designated by the Tokyo Metropolitan
evacuating
evacuation center)
Government.
If a disaster occurs or there is the threat of a
Radio (emergency radio)
An evacuation center that accepts people who
P. 138
disaster occurring, these people are in particular
A radio (emergency radio) that not only receives
would have difficulty living in a regular evacuation
need of support to ensure they can evacuate safely
general broadcasts, but can automatically receive
center, and need special care.
No-rinse/non-residue soap
and promptly, as it would be difficult for them to
the local government’s disaster radio broadcasts.
P. 56
A special type of cleanser that enables you to keep
evacuate on their own.
P. 42
clean with little to no water.
P. 145
Sediment disaster hazard area map
204
Rebuilding life
A map showing areas where there is a risk of a
Physical protection drill
After the foundation of their lives have been
sediment disaster.
A drill to practice protecting yourself when an
destroyed by a disaster, residents rebuild their daily
153
O
earthquake occurs. Activities include experiencing
lives.
shaking on an earthquake simulator and training to
P. 70
Seismic damper
Oral rehydration solution
protect yourself from falling objects.
Equipment that absorbs earthquake energy and
A mixture of salt and glucose dissolved in water,
P. 133
Rescue and relief drill
mitigates damage to the building.
which is mainly used to treat dehydration.
A drill that teaches how to use everyday tools to
P. 113
P. 197
Portable fire pump
rescue people who were unable to escape in time,
A fire pump equipped with an engine that can
due to building collapse, etc.
Self-help
Outer band
be lifted by hand. Placed at facilities used by fire
P. 134
Protecting yourself and your family by yourself,
Outer rainbands that form about 200 to 600 km
authorities, volunteer fire corps, volunteer disaster
without help from others.
from the center of the typhoon, and intermittently
response teams, etc.
Resonance
P. 17
produce strong rain showers, thunderstorms, and at
PP. 132, 191
A phenomenon where the natural frequency of a
times, tornadoes.
building and the frequency of earthquake waves
Separation panel
P. 245
Prevailing westerlies
coincide, causing the shaking to intensify greatly.
P. 240
312
313
A panel that separates an apartment unit’s veranda
A firefighting instrument that can be used by local
To provide meals and other food free of charge
Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic
or balcony from that of the adjacent unit. It can
residents. The standpipe is inserted into a fire
when a disaster occurs, etc.
Certification Mark
be broken through during an emergency to allow
hydrant or drain valve on the road, and a hose is
P. 64
A mark, issued by the Tokyo Metropolitan
escape to the unit next door.
attached to conduct firefighting activities.
Government that shows the safety of the building
P. 48
PP. 132, 190
Temporary evacuation area
against earthquakes so that Tokyo residents can feel
An area to which you evacuate temporarily when
safe using buildings.
Smart key
Staying at home
evacuation orders are given, or when the danger of
P. 108
A system for locking and unlocking a door, or
Staying at home, as opposed to going to an
fire approaches. Temporary evacuation areas include
starting an engine, without a mechanical key.
evacuation center,whenthebuildingwhereyoulivewas
local elementary schools, junior high schools, and
Triage
P. 32
notdamagedbythedisasterandthereisnodangeroftsuna
parks.
The process of determining the level of urgency
miorfire.
PP. 40, 115, 274
and severity of injuries/illnesses, and assigning
Smartphone app
PP. 41, 54
priority for treatment and transport out of the area.
Web applications that can be used on smartphones.
Temporary shelter
P. 264
There are many disaster preparedness apps,
Storm surge
A facility that temporarily accommodates people
including Internet radio apps, disaster alerts and
Abnormally high levels of ocean water due to gales
who have trouble returning home due to a disaster.
Tsunami evacuation building (evacuation
earthquake information apps.
and low pressures coinciding with high tides cause
P. 274
tower)
P. 129
the water to surge toward the land.
A facility where residents and visitors